From Africa to Asia, from the Middle East to South America, from corner to corner, Bestforworld has completed many large-scale engineering logistics projects in dozens of countries and hundreds of regions around the world and has accumulated rich experience in project logistics. Especially in breakbulk goods shipped from China and other countries.
Through rich experience in break bulk cargo shipping and project logistics, good communication skills, meticulous route exploration, and relying on strong overseas agents, we provide breakbulk cargo and project logistics services for much Chinese equipment machineries, heavy parts, oversize, suppliers, and overseas importers.
Bestforworld’s break-bulk cargo shipping and project logistics services include:
One-stop project logistics, plan design of break bulk, heavy, large, oversized cargo, ro-ro cargo, special container shipment, road survey, temporary storage, packaging, reinforcement, strapping, customs declaration documents, Issuance of Certificate of Origin, cargo tracking throughout the process.
Utilize professionalism, closely contact Chinese shippers and overseas consignors, provide cost-effective solutions for project goods, and break bulk shipment，to minimize risks.
Bestforworld’s project cargo, break bulk cargo logistics services, cover offshore engineering, cement plants, mining, metallurgy, wind power, oil drilling accessories, infrastructure facilities, rail vehicles, large engineering machinery, ocean engineering, electric power, chemical projects, and other industries.
This blog will be Google’s most detailed introduction to the complete guidelines for project logistics and break bulk cargo shipping from China and other loading ports. A large amount of content is unique and full of industry insiders. Bestforworl is also the first to publish it and the content covers:
What is breakbulk cargo shipping and what is bulk shipping？
What is the Classification of bulk carriers?
What are the advantages of Breakbulk cargo shipping?
What are the common traps in project logistics and break bulk cargo shipping, when you ship from China?
Why can’t we use low prices as the basis for choosing project logistics and break bulk cargo freight forwarding? What are the risks of low prices?
Why can’t the price be the core element to let you choose a shipping plan for break bulk cargo and project logistics？
How can I get an accurate break bulk quotation and what information should I provide when I import break bulk cargo and project shipment from China or other countries?
What are the special terms for project logistics and break bulk?
What is the difference between Breakbulk cargo shipment and container shipment?
What are the common English abbreviations for Breakbulk cargo and project logistics when shipping from China and other countries?
What are the precautions in bulk carrier transportation packaging?
Bulk carriers can be divided into different types according to different loads. What are their characteristics?
What are the principles to be followed in the operation of bulk carrier cargo by sea?
What is the detailed operation process of project cargo and break bulk cargo？
Which products are mainly transported by break bulk shipping and bulk carriers?
What are the characteristics and advantages of dry bulk carriers?
What are the charges included in the freight of bulk carriers?
What elements must you consider when you ship with break bulk cargo?
Break bulk shipping rates are relatively stable before 2020. Why has break bulk’s shipping rates changed so much since 2021?
What are the factors affecting the rate in BREAK BULK shipping?
What is the difference between bulk cargo and break bulk cargo?
The most fascinating thing is the answers to the following two questions. Keep reading the surprises below:
What is the impact of the latest policies, regulations and restrictions issued by the Chinese government t? When you ship break bulk, project logistics, RORO, oversize goods from China？
What is a bulk ship?
Bulk cargo ships usually refer to bulk, granular, and powdered goods without fixed packaging or packaging, such as ore, coal, and bulk salt, etc., with different packaging forms.
The bulk carriers carried are all large Capesize and Panamax bulk carriers, and the ship conditions are good. According to the actual situation of the customer’s cargo, we can provide the full service of chartering and booking, and cargo tracking.
For ocean routes such as Southeast Asia, the Middle East, and Africa, bulk cargo can load and depart at any time according to the customer’s shipping time.
What are the two methods of Break Bulk cargo transportation?
There are two types of bulk cargo transportation: chartering and booking.
Chartered transportation means that the owner of the ship leases the ship to the charterer. The method of transporting goods in accordance with the provisions of the charter party or the arrangements of the charterer is generally suitable for bulk cargo transportation.
Booking space means that the shipper negotiates with the shipping company to book the space for the transportation of goods. Generally suitable for the transportation of break bulk cargo.
What is the difference between bulk cargo and break bulk cargo?
In simple terms, such as loading ore, rice, and other products, they are usually shipped with bulk cargo.
Usually, large machinery, vehicles, heavy cargo, and oversize cargo are placed in different cabins or decks and shipped with break bulk cargo.
This is the easiest way to understand. Bulk cargo usually has a single or even one type of item, but for the delivery of break bulk cargo, a ship will carry many different items.
What is the berth terms mean？
BERTH TERMS (BT): The ship is responsible for loading and unloading fees.
BT means that at the port of loading, the charterer is only responsible for delivering the goods to the dock, near the side of the ship, and placing them under the hook of the ship, while the owner of the ship receives the goods where the hook of the ship reaches; at the port of destination, the shipowner unloading the goods. They are responsible for delivering the goods under the ship’s hook, and the charterer receives the goods under the ship’s hook. As for the division of expenses, this is also the standard.
What is the internal and external structure of the Bulk cargo ship?
The bulk cargo ship, which is a transport ship that carries bulk cargo such as powders, granules, and blocks. Bulk carriers carry a single type of cargo and a large batch, usually only with a single deck; the hull structure is strong, adapting to the requirements of concentrated loads; in order to adapt to cabin operations and improve the efficiency of loading and unloading, large hatches are used; the engine room is usually arranged at the stern of the ship to make the cargo hold There is a spacious continuous space for loading and unloading operations;
In order to facilitate fast loading and unloading, modern bulk carriers over tens of thousands of tons use the port’s efficient shore cranes for loading and unloading, and no lifting equipment is installed on the ship; the cargo hold is octagonal in cross-section, which facilitates the automatic fall of the cargo and is conducive to loading and unloading operations. The gross tonnage of bulk carriers is second only to oil tankers, and the tonnage of a single vessel can reach several hundred thousand tons.
In order to meet the requirements of various bulk cargo transportation in large quantities, there are several special bulk carriers as follows:
What are the common bulk carriers?
Due to the small ore stowage factor (volume occupied by each ton of cargo), the load is too concentrated, and the cargo tank has a large volume. The hull structure is made of a raised double bottom, the cargo tank is in the shape of a narrow bucket, and the hull structure is strong.
Bulk Coal ship：
It is equipped with good ventilation to prevent coal from heating and spontaneous combustion, and the hull structure is similar to that of ordinary bulk carriers.
Bulk grain ship：
Due to the large stowage factor of the ship, the cabin capacity is larger than that of ordinary bulk carriers, and the bulk grain is dense and fluid underneath. It is usually necessary to install a stop plate to increase the height of the coaming on the hatch to make the bulk grain suitable for settlement.
Bulk cement ship：
In order to prevent the cement from agglomerating and scattering, a dust collection chamber or an air filter should be installed on the hatch cover, and the hatch cover should be watertight. In addition, there are special bulk carriers for phosphate rock, fertilizer, vehicle bulk, and container bulk.
What are the characteristics and advantages of dry bulk carriers?
Because the dry bulk carriers normally ship the simple items, they do not need to be packed in bundles, packages, or boxes for loading and transportation, and they are not afraid of squeezing and are easy to load and unload, so they are all single-deck ships. If the total load capacity is more than 50,000 tons, no lifting equipment is generally installed. Because the stowage factors (volume occupied by each ton of cargo) of grains, coal, and ore are very different, the required cargo hold volume, hull structure, layout, and equipment are different in many respects. Therefore, it is generally customary to only call ships with similar stowage factors such as grain and coal as bulk carriers, and ships with smaller stowage factors such as ore and other cargoes.
What is a heavy lift Bulk carrier ship?
Especially for handling over-long and over-heavy cargo, the ship crane can lift the largest single piece of cargo of 800-2000 tons.
What are the classifications of ships according to their purposes?
Due to different classification methods, the same ship may have different titles. Most ships are named according to the purpose of the ship. According to different purposes, it can be divided into: passenger and cargo ships; general cargo ships; container ships, ro-ro ships, barges; bulk grain ships, coal ships, combined ships (ore/oil tankers, ore/bulk carriers/tankers), special cargo ships (timber carrier, refrigerated ships, automobile transport ships, etc.); oil tankers, liquefied gas ships, liquid chemical ships, etc.
What is the Passenger cargo ship？
In addition to carrying passengers, it also carries some cargo (the cabin below the waterline is used for cargo as much as possible). Passenger and cargo ships have the same requirements as passenger ships.
What is the general cargo ship？
General cargo ship: commonly known as a break bulk cargo ship also. Pieces of groceries refer to various items such as machinery and equipment, building materials, and large-scale engineering accessories. Ships that specialize in transporting groceries packed in bundles, bales, and boxes are called general cargo ships or breakbulk ships.
What are the characteristics of Breakbulk when you shipping from China and other loading port？
1）A general cargo ship or breakbulk has the following characteristics:
The deadweight is unlikely to be very large. The total deadweight of ocean-going general cargo ships is about 10,000 to 14,000 tons; the total deadweight of offshore general cargo ships is about 5,000 tons; the total deadweight of coastal general cargo ships Below 3,000 tons (due to the large variety of cargo, insufficient supply, slow loading and unloading speed, long docking time, and uneconomical general cargo ship with a large load capacity).
This is also the main reason why the load capacity of a break bulk ship cannot be too large. This is also a big disadvantage of break bulk cargo ships.
2) In order to facilitate cargo handling, break bulk cargo ships generally have 2-3 decks. A break bulk cargo ship with a deadweight of 10,000 tons, with 5-6 cargo bays. Most of the cabin positions are located in the middle and rear models, and some adopt tail models.
3) Breakbulk cargo has a first floor and a bridge on the upper part of the engine room. Old-fashioned 5,000-ton break bulk cargo ships mostly use the three-island type.
4) Many 10,000-ton break bulk cargo ships are often equipped with deep tanks due to ballast requirements, and deep tanks can be used to carry liquid cargo (animal and vegetable oils, molasses, etc.).
5) Break bulk cargo ships are generally equipped with lifting equipment, most of which are based on booms, and some are equipped with hydraulic rotary cranes.
6) Most break bulk cargo ships have one hatch for each cargo hold, but a few general cargo ships adopt double-row hatches according to the needs of loading and unloading cargo.
7) Unscheduled general cargo ships are generally low-speed ships. Excessive speed is very uneconomical for general cargo ships. Ocean-going general cargo ships are about 14 knots to 18 knots, and the endurance is more than 12,000 nautical miles; the speed of offshore general cargo ships is about 13 knots to 15 knots; the speed of coastal general cargo ships is about 11 knots to 13 knots.
8) Breakbulk cargo has one main engine and a single propeller.
The following introduces the details of ship regulations:
The ship specification is a description of specific ship conditions, which serves as a basis for the charterer to choose a suitable ship, and serves as an integral part of the charter party. Its main contents and functions are as follows:
(1) Shipowner’s name: used to review the shipowner’s reputation.
(2) Ship name: used to prevent the shipowner from replacing it with another ship.
(3) Flag: Ports that cannot be called from the perspective of international relations.
(4) Construction time: based on which the ship age is estimated.
(5) Ship class: indicates the overall performance status of the ship.
(6) Deadweight tonnage and deadweight volume: according to which the maximum quantity of cargo can be determined.
(7) Registered gross tonnage and net tonnage: used to calculate port-related charges.
(8) Full-load draft: the port at which the call can be considered.
(9) Speed and fuel consumption: Based on this, the voyage date and operating cost are calculated.
(10) Boom equipment: consider the availability of cargo from the perspective of loading and unloading.
(11) The number of decks/cargo ships and hatch size: according to the scope of cargo suitable for consideration.
What are the safety provisions for break bulk cargo shipments?
a) The charterer shall instruct the port station operator or his representative and the captain to cooperate with each other to complete the IMO ship/shore safety checklist, and arrange all-cargo operations in strict accordance with the regulations.
b) In addition to the provisions of the preceding paragraph and although the charter party has other provisions on the loading and unloading rate, the charterer shall instruct the port station operator to carry out cargo loading and unloading in accordance with the loading and unloading plan approved by the captain. The captain shall consider the ship when approving the loading and unloading plan. The balance, stability, pressure, or other factors may affect the safety of the ship.
c) During any period of cargo operations if the captain believes that there are necessary reasons affecting the safety of the ship, he has the right to notify the port station operator or his representative to slow down or stop the loading and unloading of cargo.
d)The provisions of this clause do not affect the calculation of loading and unloading time.
Examples of ship models:
The 92500DWT bulk carrier has a total length of 230 meters, a length between two columns of 222 meters, a molded width of 38 meters, a molded depth of 20.7 meters, a structural draught of 14.9 meters, a structural draught of 92,500 tons, and a service speed of 14.1 knots.
After the Panama Canal was widened, the 92500DWT bulk carrier became a new ship type with greater demand in the international shipping market. It is mainly used for the transportation of dry bulk and bagged goods such as coal, grains, and iron ore. Compared with other similar ships, the ship has the characteristics of large single ship tonnage, strong environmental protection and energy-saving, and good technical performance, which is in line with the overall trend of international shipping of “safety, economy, health, and environmental protection”.
What products are Break-bulk cargo carriers mainly used to transport?
The main cargoes undertaken by Breakbulk logistics are as follows:
Construction machinery equipment： road construction equipment, construction vehicles, loaders, road rollers, bulldozers, buses, etc.
Complete equipment: steelmaking equipment, cement equipment, road repair equipment, water supply equipment, power station equipment, chemical production lines, etc.
Hardware materials: angle steel, I-beam, H-shaped steel, channel steel, steel pipe, seamless pipe, ductile cast pipe, galvanized pipe, wire rod, rebar, steel structure, etc.
Light industry decoration materials: building templates, medium density boards, plywood, fine wood boards, and various building materials, etc.
Chemical materials: cement, fertilizer, gypsum, alkali, oxygen compounds, and other chemicals.
In addition, there are products such as coal, iron ore, coke, copper ore, chrome ore, manganese ore, wood, and cassava chips.
Next, we will introduce in detail the advantages of break bulk shipments, as well as chartering freight calculations, as well as detailed concepts:
What is breakbulk cargo ship?
Breakbulk ship is also called general cargo ship, which mainly carries bulk cargo in packages, boxes, and bundles. Cargo ships are ships that specialize in transporting various goods on the water.
They are divided into dry bulk cargo ships and tankers. General cargo ships are a type of dry cargo ship. Generally speaking, a 10,000-ton class cargo ship means that its cargo capacity is about 10,000 tons or more than 10,000 tons, and its total deadweight and full-load displacement are much larger.
Usually also called in international logistics: break-bulk carrier
The biggest feature of break-bulk cargo shipping is to load general packaging, box, and barrel cargo.
Break-bulk cargo shipping ranks first in the total tonnage of the world merchant fleet
What is the structure of a 10,000-ton break bulk cargo ship?
General cargo ships with a capacity of 10,000 tons are generally double-deck ships with 4-6 cargo compartments. Each cargo compartment has a cargo hatch on the deck, and cargo booms capable of lifting 5-20 tons are installed on both sides of the cargo hatch. Some ships are also equipped with heavy booms for lifting heavy cargo, with a lifting capacity of up to 60 to 150 tons. The cargo ship with special requirements is equipped with a huge V-shaped lifting boom, which can lift several hundred tons. In order to improve the efficiency of loading and unloading, some cargo ships are equipped with rotary cranes.
There is also a development of a multi-purpose dry bulk cargo ship, which can carry general packaged groceries as well as bulk cargo and container cargo. This kind of cargo ship has greater applicability and higher transportation efficiency than general cargo ships that carry single cargo.
Break bulk cargo ships are widely used, ranking first in the total tonnage of the world’s merchant fleet. The general cargo ships sailing in inland waters have hundreds of tons and thousands of tons, while the general cargo ships in ocean transportation can reach more than 20,000 tons. General cargo ships are required to have a good economy and safety, without having to pursue high speeds. General cargo ships usually sail in various ports according to the specific conditions of the source of goods and the needs of freight, with fixed schedules and routes.
General cargo ships have a strong longitudinal structure. The bottom of the hull is mostly a double-layer structure. The bow and stern are equipped with front and rear pointed cabins. They can be used to store freshwater or load ballast water to adjust the trim of the ship. Prevent seawater from entering the large cabin and play a safety role. Above the hull, there are 2 to 3 decks and several cargoes hold. The hatches are covered with watertight hatches to prevent water from entering. The nacelle is either arranged in the middle or in the stern, each has its own advantages and disadvantages.
It is arranged in the middle to adjust the trim of the hull, and the rear is conducive to the arrangement of the cargo space. Both sides of the hatch are equipped with lifting poles. In order to load and unload large parts, heavy booms are usually equipped. In order to improve the good adaptability of general cargo ships to the transportation of various goods, and can carry large cargo, containers, general cargo, and some bulk cargoes, modern new general cargo ships are often designed as multi-purpose ships.
What are the advantages of breakbulk cargo vessels？
- Small tonnage, mobility, and flexibility
Generally speaking, the total deadweight of ocean-going general cargo ships is about 10000~14000t, and some general cargo ships can reach more than 20000t; the total deadweight of offshore general cargo ships is about 5,000 tons; the total deadweight of coastal general cargo ships is less than 3000t . In the past 20 years, the number of general cargo ships larger than 10,000 tons has dropped significantly in both the liner and charter markets, while the number of general cargo ships smaller than 10,000 tons has remained relatively stable. More than 80% of the general cargo ships in the global general cargo fleet are less than 10,000t. These general cargo ships of less than 10,000t have a draft below 8.5 m. They have low requirements on navigation channels and have good maneuverability. They can easily pass through narrow waterways and bridges and Ship lock. In addition, because of the small turning radius required, the requirements for the water area of the port are low, so it is convenient to enter and exit various small and medium ports.
- You can bring your own lifting equipment
Below will answer the reason why the overall freight of breakbulk is lower than the ocean freight of containers?
Because general cargo ships have to carry a variety of cargo to ports with different conditions, self-sufficiency is the characteristic of break bulk ships. They all have their own booms, and some have heavy lifts. break bulk ships bring their own cargo equipment to the dock, which greatly reduces the requirements, even if it is a polished wharf, or even an ordinary rocky coast, as long as the water depth at the front is sufficient and the sea conditions allow, the breakbulk ship can be loaded and unloaded, so the break bulk ship The scope of activities extends to various small piers.
Because of the low cost of small terminals, the port fees paid by ships are lower, which in turn reduces the freight of goods. The vast majority of container ships do not carry lifting equipment. This is mainly due to the large cargo capacity of container ships. Ship lifting equipment cannot be compared with specialized container loading and unloading bridges in terms of loading and unloading efficiency and lifting weight. In this way, the stay time of container ships in small terminals will increase, and the advantages of container transportation will be difficult to play.
- Large space in the hatch
Newly built break bulk ships tend to have large cabins and wide mouths to facilitate the loading of large cargo. General cargo ships of different tonnages have different hatch sizes. For example, the hatch size of a 5000t general cargo ship is about 10.5m, while the hatch size of a 10,000-ton general cargo ship exceeds 14m. At the same time, the bottom tanks of general cargo ships are designed as large tanks, and the bottom tank has a strong deck and many securing accessories, which provides convenience for the shipment of large cargo.
Furthermore, a considerable part of general cargo ships that carry heavy cargo are equipped with heavy cranes, and most of the general cargo terminals are also equipped with heavy portal cranes or heavy floating cranes. The lifting weight of these heavy cranes is generally more than 100 tons, which is sufficient to ensure the heavy lifting. Normal loading and unloading of pieces of cargo.
- Low construction and operating costs
The construction cost of break bulk ships is lower than that of container ships. General cargo ships are designed into several cabins, while most full container ships are single cabins. As a result, container ships have no transverse bulkheads and the lateral strength of their hulls is lower than that of general cargo ships of the same tonnage, so general cargo ships can be used Hull materials that are lower than container ships in terms of hardness, stiffness, yield limit, and other parameters.
In addition, the general cargo ship sails slowly, so low-power and inexpensive main engines can be used. In terms of ship navigation, communication equipment and crew, the national standards and international conventions also have lower requirements for general cargo ships than container ships.
The operating cost of general cargo ships is also lower than that of container ships. The loading and unloading machinery of break bulk ships (such as portal cranes, flatbed trucks, tire cranes, etc.) are relatively low in price, and the warehouse yard occupies less area, so the port cost is less than that of container ships. In contrast, container ships need specialized container terminals for loading and unloading, and these specialized terminals have a large number of loading and unloading machinery, and most of them are expensive.
The terminal yard covers a large area and the management cost is high, so the cost of berthing in the port ，A general cargo ship higher than the same tonnage. For container ships, the guaranteed schedule is a manifestation of business reputation and is very important to it. Therefore, the speed of container ships is kept above 20 knots, while the speed of ocean-going general cargo ships is generally 14-18 knots; the speed of offshore general cargo ships is average It is 13~15 knots; the speed of coastal general cargo ships is generally 11~13 knots.
From the knowledge of fluid mechanics, it can be known that under the condition of other parameters unchanged, the speed is proportional to the cube of the fuel consumption. In other words, the increase in container ship speed has brought about a substantial increase in fuel consumption, and its sailing cost is much greater than that of a general cargo ship of the same tonnage.
Why is the cost of breakbulk lower than container ships?
Because “total cost = fixed cost + sailing cost + berthing cost”, the total cost of break bulk ships is lower than that of container ships of the same tonnage, which enables general cargo ships to quote freight rates that are more attractive to shippers
The following introduces the common terms of break bulk, which are also commonly used terms of project logistics. The terms detailed the responsibilities and beliefs of shipowners and cargo owners for loading and unloading at the terminal, because the crane at the terminal is very expensive and equipped with heavy cranes. There is a very large difference in sea freight between a break bulk ship with a crane and a ship without a crane:
FLT: Liner terms. The shipowner is responsible for loading and unloading. This Term is more used when the freight forwarder gives the shipper a quotation.
FIOST: The shipowner is not responsible for loading, unloading, stowage, and trimming fees.
FI: The shipowner is not responsible for loading.
FO: The shipowner is not responsible for unloading the cargo.
FIO: The shipowner is not responsible for loading and unloading. This term is often used for bulk cargo chartering.
FILO: The shipowner does not bear the loading fee, but bears the unloading fee. This term is used more when the shipowner quotes the freight forwarder
LIFO: The shipowner is responsible for loading but not unloading. This term is rarely used.
These terms are the most basic bulk cargo transportation clauses. Of course, there will be a lot of them in the charter, such as lashing, dunnage, and so on.
Steel pipes are generally used for FILO, if it is Southeast Asia and Brazil, generally use FIO terms, and the Middle East and other regions generally use FILO terms
What is the full English name of CQD CUSTOMARY QUICK DESPATCH?
It is a term in the chartering business, and it belongs to the content of the loading and unloading rate clause. Generally, shipowners are unwilling to accept this clause because they have to take a lot of risk. For example, when the port is suppressed, only the shipowner is responsible for the loss of the shipping schedule. Therefore, shipowners generally insist on a loading and unloading rate. However, if the cargo owner or charterer does not understand the loading rate or unloading rate, or wants to pass the risk to the owner, then stick to this clause. However, the shipowner will know the loading or unloading situation of this port beforehand, and will also consider this factor in the quotation provided. To
Corresponding to this term is DETENTION, which means that under the CQD clause if the shipping schedule is affected because the cargo is not ready, the owner or charterer shall be compensated for loss according to DETENTION.
CQD will not be accepted unless the shipowner has a good understanding of the loading and unloading port and the route, and the cargo itself is attractive and the charterer is at ease.
Generally speaking: CDQ is a clause that will kill shipowners.
What is the relationship between project logistics and breakbulk logistics?
What is project logistics?
Project logistics is a logistics activity whose main object is a project, and a project is a combination of resources to achieve a certain purpose.
The project logistics is usually only done once and is generally not repeated. Therefore, the project is a unique logistics process that needs to be completed within a limited time, cost, human resources, and financial and other project parameters.
Project logistics includes engineering project logistics, large-scale project logistics, exhibition logistics, etc. Different project logistics are different in terms of operation technology, method and organization. The project logistics management and operation process have a certain degree of particularity, which requires innovative work.
Project logistics has the following characteristics:
- The project logistics is for the purpose of serving the project. When the project ends, the project logistics will also end;
- Project logistics activities are mostly one-off activities with less repetition;
- Project logistics is of particularity, and special vehicles and tools are often needed to complete logistics activities.
The above are the three main characteristics of project logistics. What needs attention here is the difference between project logistics and logistics projects. Project logistics is a mode of logistics, which is very different from logistics projects.
Of course, a lot of break bulk shipments are regular goods, usually, there will be a return order. For example, large machines may be transported through break bulk because of size limitations or shipping costs. Compared with containers, break bulk freight has more advantages.
The time limit for the delivery of Break bulk is not as strict as the project logistics.
What are the differences and commonalities between container shipowners and bulk carrier shipowners?
The container transportation department and the bulk cargo department of the large shipping companies are two companies operating separately.
For example, MSC and Maersk have bulk cargo departments, but they operate separately from container shipping companies.
Which way can I find the best break bulk logistics solution provider?
But generally speaking, the main bulk carriers are still many state-owned or private owners. The best way to provide services is to find a professional charter agent or a freight forwarder who specializes in project logistics or break bulk. Because they are very familiar with the route, frequency, and price changes of these bulk carriers.
The relationship here is extremely complicated. If you simply use emails and phone calls, you will only get a very superficial response, which has no practical meaning. This is a very cruel reality.
In addition, you have to distinguish whether you want a general cargo ship or a bulk cargo ship. Goods, all kinds of ore, grain, and of course some goods can be loaded.
The following are the big differences between bulk cargo and container transportation:
Bulk cargo generally can only charter the entire ship (time chartering is the entire ship, so you’d better make sure that your cargo can fill a ship, otherwise no one will talk to you) So, usually through a broker Or a professional freight forwarder to negotiate.
Container Liners are all scheduled, regular, and routed. It’s like a bus. What bulk carriers don’t have, like taxis.
However, there are two general cargo ships. Among the general cargo ships, there are scheduled ships and whether it is equipped with self-loading and unloading equipment (Geared Vessel). However, this is not the main difference between a container ship and a general cargo ship. Ports with poor conditions such as Latin America and West Africa are very popular.
If the container industry does not encounter the 2020 epidemic, life will be very sad, profits are very bad, and competition is vicious. Many shipping companies need to look at the faces of large importers. Of course, all this has happened in international logistics after 2020. It means that the world’s major shipping companies can make good money in the next few years or even 10 years if this trend can continue. . .
Why do bulk carrier companies have both profits and risks? Why do they need high-profit margins?
The actual profits of bulk carrier companies can be very high, especially those for which large-scale customers can sign long-term contracts. But the risk is high, and the market price changes drastically, just look at the BDI index. It belongs to the kind that if working for 3 years and eats for 3 years. When iron ore prices were high a few years ago, a shipowner feel like finding a gold mine. Later, BDI fell from 12,000 to more than 1,000 (more than 2,000 before the increase), and you need to have a concept.
Container ship VS break bulk cargo ship:
In general, the differences between container ships and bulk ships are mainly reflected in the following points:
Break Bulk Ship:
A ship that transports bulk cargo, such as coal, grain, etc.; the advantage is: the effective cargo capacity is large, but the loading and unloading is more troublesome. Special loading and unloading machinery is required, such as: grab crane, conveyor belt, vacuum conveying pipeline, etc.
A ship used to transport container cargo. Because there are containers, the effective load is larger than ro-ro ships but lower than bulk ships.
The container ship is a single-layer hull, which has very high requirements on the torsion and bending resistance of the hull, while the bulk carrier is mostly a double-hull, because the density of dry bulk is higher than that of the container cargo, and the double-layer strengthens the strength of the hull.
First of all, the transportation costs of the two ships are different. Container ships generally have fast speeds, high fuel consumption, and more ports, while bulk carriers generally have slow speeds, low fuel consumption, and few ports.
Secondly, the target cargo is different. Containers mainly target semi-finished products or genuine products, or high-value items. Bulk carriers generally transport raw materials, and their sensitivity to freight is significantly different.
Thirdly, the operating cost of container shipping lines is much higher than that of bulk shipping lines. Container liners must have agents or even subsidiaries in various places. Bulk cargo is generally one-way leased, as long as there is a local shipping agent.
Finally, the above are all based on normal conditions. In fact, there have been many periods in the maritime market when the freight of container ships was less than that of break bulk carriers. They were all in the low period of container ships. Sometimes container ships were used to load ore, the container shipping cost is too low in some time.
What are the commonly used English abbreviations in the actual operation of common break bulk and project logistics?
BAF(=FAF=BAC) BUNKER ADJUSTMENT FEE
FAF(=BAF=BAC) FUEL ADJUSTMENT FEE
BAC(=BAF=FAF) BUNKER ADJUSTMENT CHARGE
CAF CURRENCY ADJUSTMENT FEE C&F COST + FREIGHT
CIF COST + INSURANCE + FREIGHT
FOB FREE ONBOARD
CFS(=LCL) CONTAINER FREIGHT STATION
LCL(=CFS) LESS CONTAINER LOAD
CY(=FCL) CONTAINER YARD
FCL(=CY) FULL CONTAINER LOAD
D/O DELIVERY ORDER
ETA ESTIMATED TIME OF ARRIVAL
ETD ESTIMATED TIME OF DEPARTURE
FAK FREIGHT ALL KIND
IPI INTERIOR POINTS INTERMODAL
POA PLACE OF ACCEPTANCE
POD PORT OF DISCHARGE
TEU TWENTY-FOOT EQUIVALENT UNITS
FEU FORTY-FOOT EQUIVALENT UNITS
THC TERMINAL HANDLING CHARGE
T/C(=W/C) TERMINAL CHARGE
W/C(=T/C) WAREHOUSE CHARGE
NVOCC NON-VESSEL OPERATING COMMON CARRIER
CUT OFF CLOSING DATE/CUT OFF DATE
O/B ON BOARD DATE
D.D.C. DESTINATION DELIVERY CHARGE
PNW PACIFIC NORTHWEST
PSW PACIFIC SOUTHWEST
W/C WEST COAST
E/C EAST COAST
MLB MINI-LAND BRIDGE
A/W ALL WATER
B/L BILL OF LOADING
S/O SHIPPING ORDER
CLP CONTAINER LOAD PLAN
P.P. FREIGHT PREPAID
C.C. FREIGHT COLLECT
D/A DOCUMENTS DELIVER AGAINST ACCEPTANCE
D/P DOCUMENTS DELIVER AGAINST PAYMENT
T/T TELEX TRANSFER
FMC FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION
FIATA FEDERATION INTERNATIONAL DES ASSOCIATIONS DE TRANSITAIRESET ASSIMILES GRI GENERAL RATE INCREASE
I/A INDEPENDENT ACTION
N.O.R. NON-OPERATING-REEFER CONTAINER
M.A.F. MFS ADJUSTMENT FACTOR
UIFA US$ IMPACT FREIGHT ADJUSTMENT
W/M WEIGHT OR MEASUREMENT
CBM CUBIC METRE
BT BERTH TERM
CSE / CRT CASE / CRATE
FIO FREE IN & OUT
FILO FREE IN LINER OUT
FLT FULL LINER TERM
GW GROSS WEIGHT
CW CHANGEABLE WEIGHT
VOL WT VOLUME WEIGHT
ICD INLAND CONTAINER DEPOT
LIFO LINER IN FREE OUT
M/S MOTOR SHIP
M/V MOTOR VESSEL
ORC ORIGIN RECEIVING CHARGE
P&I CLUB PROTECTION AND INDEMNITY CLUB
R/T REVENUE TON
STC SAID TO CONTAIN
TBA TO BE ADVISED
TBN TO BE NOMINATED
LIO LINER IN & OUT
VOL WT VOLUME WEIGHT
OAC OUTPORT ADD-ON CHARGE PCC PANAMA CHNAL CHARGE
PSS PEAK SEASON SURCHARGE
FOR FREE ON RAIL
Q&A for Bulk bulk and project logistics shipment from China ：
What are the precautions in break bulk cargo transportation packaging?
In sea transportation, in fact, there are also many cases where logistics companies neglected packaging problems during bulk carrier transportation, which caused damage to customers’ products. More and more logistics companies will pay attention to the precautions of choosing bulk carrier transportation packaging when packing. Next, we will introduce the packaging precautions for bulk carrier transportation.
- Ensure the air tightness of the packaging
In bulk carrier transportation activities, transportation packaging is a very important part. It is also an important part of logistics transportation services, and different transportation packages have different requirements for different goods. Before carrying out logistics transportation, you must first understand the goods, and then package and pack the goods according to the information you know. The purpose of bulk carrier transportation and packaging is to protect the goods from damage, and the tightness of the goods is the key.
- Don’t be greedy for cheap packaging
In order to control costs, some logistics and transportation companies use relatively cheap packaging materials for logistics and transportation. In the future, due to unqualified packaging, it is very likely that the goods will be damaged due to unqualified packaging. Some logistics and transportation companies are advised not to do the lower the standards of logistics and transportation for some immediate benefits.Many factories may provide relatively inferior wooden boxes, bottom pallets, hooks, and other related core packaging components, which lay a great safety hazard to the loading and unloading of goods.
- Listen to the packaging suggestions of the factory and combine the actual situation of the importer
The most important thing is to listen to the packaging suggestions of the factory, which may increase the cost, but the factory has far more experience than the purchaser. Of course, it must also be combined with the purchaser’s own unloading conditions and climate to develop a packaging plan suitable for break bulk.
Break Bulk carriers can be divided into different types according to different loads. What are their characteristics?
The structural characteristics of the coal carrier:
A coal ship is a bulk cargo ship used for loading and transporting coal. Its hatch is relatively wide, making it easy to load and unload coal with a grab bucket. In order to prevent coal from rolling in the coal bunker, many longitudinal baffles are provided at the bottom of the coal bunker. Some coal ships do not use grabs and booms but are equipped with belt conveyors at the bottom of the coal bunker, which can be connected to shore conveyors and can load and unload coal by themselves
The structural characteristics of the ore ship:
An ore ship is a bulk cargo ship that specializes in loading sand. Because the ore is a heavy cargo, it has a large specific volume and a small volume, which can easily damage the hull. For this reason, the ore ship has a strong structure. The bottom of the cargo hold is most inclined. The cargo hold is also equipped with longitudinal baffles, which can prevent the ore from rolling longitudinally and increase the strength of the hull.
The structural characteristics of the wooden ship:
Wooden ships are used to load and transport timber ships, due to the lightweight and large volume of wood. Therefore, the cargo hold of the wooden ship is wide, and there are no hull components such as beams and columns in the cargo hold. Also, because the wood is not afraid of wind and rain, it can be installed in the cargo hold or stacked on the deck. In order to block and enclose the timber, wooden posts are arranged on the side of the deck so that more timber can be installed.
Bulk carriers can be divided into different types according to different transportation purposes. What are their characteristics?
Ordinary Bulk Carrier
Ordinary bulk carriers are generally single-deck, stern type, and the cross-section of the cargo hold is octagonal. Due to the single type of cargo transported, the requirements for compartment separation are not high, and the specific gravity of various bulk cargoes vary greatly, the bulk cargo ship’s cargo compartment volume is relatively large to meet the requirements for loading light cargo. When heavy cargo needs to be loaded, the method of compartment loading or the arrangement of large and small compartments shall be adopted.
Dedicated bulk carrier
Special bulk carriers are bulk carriers designed and built according to the special requirements of some large quantities of bulk cargo for maritime transportation technology, mainly including coal carriers, bulk grain carriers, ore carriers, and bulk cement carriers.
Double-use bulk carrier
The dual-purpose bulk carrier is a ship designed and built according to the special requirements of certain specific bulk cargo or bulk cargo for maritime transportation technology, and has a variety of shipping functions.
Special bulk carrier
Large-hatch bulk carrier: This type of ship has a cargo hatch width of more than 70% of the ship’s width and is equipped with lifting equipment. It can load bulk cargo as well as wood, steel, rubber, machinery, containers. Wait, it is very adaptable.
Self-unloading bulk carrier: a transport ship with a special cargo hold structure and an automatic unloading system. It can carry out centralized operation and fast automatic unloading operations without relying on port facilities, and is suitable for transporting bulk ore, grain, coal, cement, fertilizer, etc.
Livestock ships are bulk cargo ships that specialize in transporting livestock. In order to prevent livestock from moving in the cabin, partitions are provided in the cabin of the livestock ship, and there is also a food trough in the cabin for livestock food.
A grain ship is a bulk cargo ship that specializes in transporting grain. It belongs to the category of dry bulk carriers.
Cement ships are bulk cargo ships that specialize in transporting cement. It belongs to the category of dry bulk carriers.
A steel carrier is a bulk carrier that specializes in shipping steel. It belongs to the category of dry bulk carriers.
What are the principles to be followed and Key points that need to be considered in the operation of break bulk carrier cargo by sea? when shipping from China and other places.
- Carefully read the quantity of goods and the scope of responsibility in the contract
In recent years, with the rapid development of the marine bulk carrier industry, the requirements for import and export shipping agency business have also been comprehensively improved. In addition, when operating marine bulk cargo, you must carefully read the contract and quickly grasp the quantity of the cargo, loading and unloading conditions, scope of responsibility and other relevant information. In addition, you must also understand whether the cargo can be loaded on board and whether it is stacked. Whether it can be placed on the deck or can only be placed in the cabin.
- Collect and sort information about the number of goods
Reconfirm with domestic suppliers and overseas consignors to understand the real situation, shipment volume, piece weight information, etc. If you need to handle the import customs clearance business of bulk cargo, you must accurately check the total shipment volume, piece weight and other bulk carrier cargo information after receiving the container list, so that the imported bulk carrier agent can submit the report according to the cargo status. Check the customs declaration documents.
- Track the status of the terminal and arrange the business of customs declaration and clearance in a timely manner
Compared with the entire container operation, the marine bulk carrier operation is much more complicated. By tracking ship information, obtaining bulk carrier ship contact information, shipping schedule and other information, only by dynamically grasping the status of all ships can timely delivery arrangements, export customs declaration and import customs clearance services.
- Choose the FOB Termas far as possible, because the project cargo and break bulk are greatly affected by the operation factors of the terminal, which usually causes the reduction of loading efficiency, or the terminal congestion, the delay of the shipping schedule, and it is very easy to cause a lot money on the Truck overnight charge. If the FOB clause, these risks are all transferred to your shipper.
Also, it is usually because many importers don’t know and it’s difficult to find a professional and reputable break bulk forwarder in China, so CIF goods are actually the main terms of project logistics and break bulk cargo shipping, but the supplier and his CIF Freight forwarders usually share a lot of commissions. This amount is beyond your imagination, so Do FOB is the approach of a smart importer.
The detailed operation process of project cargo or break bulk cargo when shipping from China by see freight:
Below is the detailed shipping export process of break bulk and project cargo exclusively announced by Bestforworld. These are some of the most basic steps for ocean export break bulk. Of course, it is still very useful for newcomers, if you have the first shipment from China, through break bulk, or if you have regular item for break bulk shipping from China, you can discuss with us or ask for more experience:
1)Inquiry for break bulk cargo from China
Clients need to provide the following information to your break bulk cargo freight forwarder or charter broker, usually a freight forwarder, because charter brokers do not see most of the enquiries on the market, and most of them are operated through professional breakbulk freight forwarders.
Detailed Product name (preferably in Chinese and English)
Detailed cargo size and weight (for oversized items, it is best to include cargo pictures)
Port of departure, port of destination. Or provide the address of the factory, because the schedule of break bulk is not the same as that of the container. In many cases, the most cost-effective logistics solution is often not near the factory. China has the most break bulk cargo operations. The ports are: Shanghai, Qingdao, Tianjin.
Target price (if you have never imported this product, you do not need to provide it through break bulk. If it is an overseas agent, please try to provide the intention price)
The taboos of inquiry:
How to get the lowest and most cost-effective break bulk shipping when you import from China?
The following answer will be the most true. It is the first time you have heard this kind of hands-on inquiry strategy teaching in Google for break bulk cargo shipping from China.
Do not ask more than 4 freight forwarders. Many new importers and overseas freight forwarders will compare prices everywhere after receiving inquiries, because the shipowner of break bulk is not the same as the container ship. If the other party thinks you must ship the goods, even if they There is a lack of goods, but the shipping cost you will eventually receive will increase by 30-40%. To learn more about break bulk shipping strategies from China, contact Bestforworld.
There are Common three Terms in the quotation of bulk carriers
The liner clause is also the most common clause, which is tube loading and unloading. This price is generally included in the direct quotation of the ocean freight. It is also a clause very close to the fob of container transportation.
The shipowner is not responsible for loading and unloading, and the cost of loading and unloading is outside the clause
The shipowner is not responsible for loading costs, but is responsible for unloading costs
Break bulk offer composition:
It usually consists of ocean freight+ port miscellaneous fees, as well as some local fees of the bulk carrier company, customs declaration fees, etc.
When inquiring about the price of bulk cargo, the more information provided, it is very helpful to get a good price.
The following information is generally required to obtain a detailed break bulk cargo inquiry:
Product name, number of pieces, weight, size;
Loading and unloading terms, shipping time, payment method.
And whether it can be stacked. Stack several layers. Whether to put in the cabin or work overtime.
Do you need reinforcement, lashing, and tarp? and many more
Bulk cargo also needs to provide loading and unloading rate. It is best to ask Chinese suppliers, because they know the loading speed of the goods in the past.
2) the booking of bulk bulk cargo
When the price and the shipping schedule are confirmed to be no problem, you can start to book the break bulk cargo space. The break bulk cargo ship is different from the container. If the space is booked, it cannot be CANCEL, so if the customer is sure to ship, it is necessary to sign a contract. Generally, the forwarder needs to sign at the same time as the shipper and the consignee.
3）Delivery for the break bulk cargo
When the contract is signed, we will notify the customer to deliver the goods according to the scheduled time. At this time, the shipowner will give us an incoming manifest (this incoming manifest is similar to the S/O of container transportation), which has the delivery arrival time. And the location, after we get the incoming manifest, the customer will deliver the goods as agreed according to the cargo situation. At the same time, the shipowner will also give us a shipping receipt, which is similar to a booking receipt.
4)ship to port
Under normal circumstances, the ship’s docking time is a range. When the ship arrives at the anchorage, due to the large number of ships in the port, the ship will be considered official only after the port authority informs the port time. After receiving accurate information from the port authority Called by the port.
Because we only receive some machinery and steel products for the time being, the volume of this kind of cargo is relatively small, and we all entrust the ship owner to load the ship, which is equivalent to the shipowner responsible for the shipment at the port of departure.
In addition, under normal circumstances, the ship will stay in the port for three to four days, because the entire cargo loading is based on the pre-arrangement and loading plan, and the bilge cargo must be loaded first, and the deck cargo is the last.
When the ship leaves the port in two to three days, the fee bill will be officially released. At this time, you must apply for payment, and then release the bill after the account arrives.
6） Coordination of unloading at the port of destination
There must not be a situation where goods are waiting for a ship. If the goods you import from China are heavy goods, there is no crane that can be lifted at the dock of the unloading port.
Otherwise, the overall waiting fee of the ship will be a huge expense. Many inexperienced and careless freight forwarders will not consider these issues, and they will not consider what will happen in these destination ports.
Bulk carrier comparison is not about price, but more about safety and stability, experience, and solutions.
The following is a summary of the general shipping operation process of break bulk cargo when you ship from China:
The freight forwarder accepts the entrustment of the customer’s agent, understands the basic information of the goods, and arranges follow-up matters.
Booking space with the shipowner and precise planning of time transportation must be completed smoothly.
Professional transportation of binding, carefully check the details of binding to ensure that the goods are stable and solid, and to prevent losses during transportation.
Submit relevant freight information to the customs and complete the procedures prescribed by the customs.
Make the final confirmation with the customer and handle the details carefully to ensure that every detail is correct.
The customer makes a payment.
The order is signed and delivered, and the program starts.
Do write-off and close the case at the time of export declaration.
Port of destination exchange bill of lading
Follow the previously completed procedures to change to a bill of lading.
Customs clearance and delivery
The destination is reported to the customs to complete the procedures to complete the delivery
For shipping Project logistics or break bulk cargo How do I find Chinese logistics suppliers?
Many victims of break bulk and project logistics, because they don’t know more about the professional operation process, just compare prices by price, but they don’t know that project logistics starts from the goods leaving the factory to the warehouses of overseas customers. , Is full of many uncertain factors and risks. This is not something that can be compensated by tens of dollars cheaper per cubic meter. Once losses are caused, overseas importers lose precious time and reputation.
Because it involves trade secrets, if you need to know more about the consultation plan of break bulk shipping from China, you can contact Bestforworld.
What are the usual traps imported from China for Bulk cargo and break bulk?
Here, Bestforworld will briefly introduce a few common deception methods:
1 Low price attraction, this is the best way to attract those inexperienced, first or inexperienced break bulk cargo importers and overseas freight forwarders, because once the booking is signed and the cargo enters the terminal, all the negotiation rights are in the hands of the rogue freight forwarder. Here, they can make you incredible changes in the weight and size of your cargo.
2 Unreasonable trailers will make your cargo fall from the truck. In many cases, the width of the truck is 3 meters and 3.2 meters, and the road freight may differ by 1000RMB or much more, but your loss is huge.
Many trucks look the same in shape, but the load capacity and the load structure and capacity of the body are completely different.
Because large cargo trucks need to apply for a high -speed pass before entering the expressway, please ensure that sufficient time is used for the license application for the fleet.
3 Endless overnight fees, inexperienced freight forwarders will make you cry in the overnight fees. . .
4 A poor connection will make you pay for the entire day’s operating expenses of the ship and bankrupt your business. You may not believe this, but this is real.
Too many traps. . .
what are the Project cargo and break bulk shipping strategy and plan?
1 Compare 3 agencies the most.who are able to handle the break bulk cargo
2 Looking for a professional and reputable Chinese freight forwarding company that is the best, or a freight forwarding company with Integrity. Of course, for the freight forwarding at the destination port, the Chinese freight forwarding they choose also needs to be compliant and experienced.
3 FOB terms, as mentioned above, the benefits of FOB terms for importers, when you import large equipment, project goods, and some oversized goods from China, and ship them through Break bulk or roll-on-roll, why FOB can save you a lot Money reduces a lot of risks. If you still don’t understand, contact Bestforworld.
Part of the case studys When you use break bulk or project logistics to ship from China：
Shanghai to Thailand-Soybean Bulk Carrier Transportation：
From Guangzhou to Australia-Log Bulk Carrier Ocean Shipping：
Wind turbine break bulk cargo transportation：
Infrastructure bridge hoisting break bulk transportation：
More case studies will be announced one after another. When you ship items from China and break bulk, you will be full of choices
How difficult and helpless are project logistics and Break bulk cargo shipping from China and other places under the COVID19 epidemic?
In order to prevent and control the COVID-19 epidemic, the Chinese government has put forward the strictest management and control policy for the terminal, so that the loading and unloading efficiency of break bulk ships has reached the lowest point in history, the delay of ships, the complaints of overnight fees from factories, and the eager mood of overseas sellers. . .
Below Bestforworld will specifically introduce these latest policies, regulations and restrictions issued by the Chinese government for breakbulk and project cargo shipping from China.
The main meaning of the following file is:
Strengthen the isolation measures for foreign cargo ships berthing, and strengthen the means of inspection and quarantine. Officials at some ports in China only care about their official position. They do not care how much anxious the shipper and the consignee are. They adopt a unified approach. The model, which specifically involves political inconvenience to discuss, everyone understands for themselves:
More detailed measures include:
1 break bulk cargo ship，The number of berthing ships at the terminal is strictly controlled and sometimes up to 5 ships at a time
2 Before the ship berths, the record form must be sent to the terminal in advance
3 Each ship allows one strapping company to operate. A company, in fact, is about 4 people to carry out the loading, unloading and hoisting of cargo on a ship. Can you imagine? This rate is less than one-fifth of 2019. . .
4 During the ship’s berthing period, the crew’s actions are strictly controlled to prevent the ship from the epidemic
5 Terminal personnel entering the ship are also strictly controlled and need to be registered
6 All wharf bundling, loading and unloading workers need to be quarantined for 14 days after finishing their work. This is also a serious cause of the shortage of wharf workers, and many workers are unwilling to work.
The above content is the most true, and it is also the latest policy of the domestic government to control the epidemic after a case of covid-19 was discovered in Ningbo Beilun Wharf in August 2021. Of course, the Chinese government’s epidemic prevention efforts are very strong.
What is the impact of the latest policies, regulations and restrictions issued by the Chinese government t? When you ship break bulk, project logistics, RORO, oversize goods from China？
The impacts are as follows:
1 The shipping cost of the break bulk soared directly from two digits to three digits. Because the cost of shipowners has risen greatly.
2 The shipping schedule has become very specific, and the unloading time has changed from 2-4 days to 5-7 days or even longer. The overall schedule is that the berthing day and the sailing day are out of control.
3 The strapping, loading and unloading efficiency of the dock has reached the lowest point in history.
4 Some heavy equipment needs to be directly hoisted from the truck side to the ship, and overnight expenses become very expensive.
This information is all the latest break bulk cargo shipping inside story. The insider information on terminals, shipping companies, and ocean freight will inspire overseas importers and freight forwarders who do not understand the market. It is convenient for them to specify that they are more in line with the current reality. The strategy of the situation.