What is a pallet?A pallet is a medium that transforms static goods into dynamic goods, a loading platform, and a movable platform, or a movable ground. Even if the goods on the ground lose their flexibility, they immediately gain mobility as soon as they are loaded on the pallet and become flexible mobile goods, because the goods on the pallet are in a ready state that can be transferred to movement at any time. This dynamic loading and unloading method consisting of pallets as basic tools are called pallet work.

 

What is the function of the Standard pallet?

 

Pallet work can not only significantly improve the loading and unloading effect, but its implementation has also changed the form of warehouse buildings, the structure of ships, the loading and unloading facilities of railways and other modes of transportation, and the management organization. In terms of cargo packaging, it promotes the standardization and modularization of packaging and even has a significant impact on general production activities other than loading and unloading. As the production equipment becomes more and more sophisticated, the degree of automation becomes higher and higher, the planning of production becomes stronger and the management method is gradually advanced, the work of handling between working procedures and supplying materials and semi-finished products to the production line becomes more and more important.

 

The Standard pallet operation is an effective means to quickly improve the handling efficiency and order the material flow process, and it plays a huge role in reducing production costs and improving production efficiency.

 

The important principle of handling operations is the principle of the least amount of work. That is, minimize the “secondary handling” and “temporary parking” when the goods are moving, so as to reduce the frequency of handling as much as possible. In order to improve transportation efficiency, the operator certainly hopes to reduce reloading operations as much as possible.

 

However, there are many accidental reloading operations during transportation. For example, in railway operations, the transportation on the line is completed at one time, but the operations before and after it require at least 6 to 8 times. If the goods on the pallet are to be transferred to another pallet for each of these 6 to 8 reloading operations, the entire loading and unloading operations will be very heavy, which will lose the effect of pallet transportation.

 

Conversely, if the goods are loaded on the pallet at the origin, no matter how complicated the cargo storage and transportation process is on the way, the original condition of the goods on the pallet will not be changed, and the pallet will be transported directly to the destination, which can give full play to the effect of Standard pallet transportation. Not only in terms of railway, but also in terms of automobile transportation and ship transportation, the implementation of Standard pallet direct transportation, or the combined direct transportation of various transportation methods, can achieve good transportation economic effects for the transportation industry and the material units that use transportation.

 

Therefore, the direct transportation and use of Standard pallets is one of the indispensable ways to develop modern logistics.

 

 

What types of Standard pallets are there?

 

1 flat pallet

Flat pallets are almost synonymous with pallets. As long as you mention pallets, they generally refer to flat pallets, because flat pallets have the widest range of use, the largest number of uses, and the best versatility. Flat pallets can be subdivided into three types.

 

According to the classification of the table. There are four types: There are four kinds of single-sided type, single-sided use type, double-sided use type, and airfoil;

 

Classification according to the way of the forklift. There are three types: one-way fork-in type, two-way fork-in type, and four-way fork-in type.

 

Classified according to materials. There are five types: wooden flat pallets, steel flat pallets, plastic flat pallets, composite flat pallets, and paper pallets.

 

According to the pallet professional committee of the China Federation of Logistics and Purchasing, the results of a preliminary investigation of a number of domestic pallet manufacturers, pallet use and sales companies in 2011 showed that the total number of pallets of various types in China is about 160 to 200 million. The annual output increases by about 20 million pieces. Among them, wooden flat pallets accounted for about 85%, plastic flat pallets accounted for 12%, steel pallets, composite pallets, and paper pallets together accounted for 3%. The proportion of composite flat pallets and plastic pallets rising is relatively large.

 

2 post pallet

3 box pallets

4 wheel pallet

5 special professional pallets

6 slip sheet

7  flocking pallet

 

What are the characteristics of the Standard pallet?

 

According to insulation:

  1. Anti-static, surface resistance value 10 to the 6th power of 10 to the 9th power of 10
  2. Conductive, surface resistance below 10 to the 6th power
  3. Insulation, the surface resistance is above 10 to the 12th power

 

By material:

  1. Wood: made of wood or bamboo materials, generally used for crafts or decoration.
  2. Metal: The general texture is stainless steel, which is mostly used for placing items and does not move frequently.
  3. Plastics: Because of its lighter texture, convenient use, and anti-slip function, it is mostly used in the service industry.
  4. Plastic wood: made of plastic wood composite material, it has a wide range of uses, energy-saving and pollution reduction.

 

What is the size of the standard pallet?

 

In Europe, the European Railway Union has built a wide range of pallet joint operation systems for land transportation to provide good services to cargo owners. In the United States, the food industry has also established a pallet joint venture system. The principle is that the person who receives the loaded pallets should deliver the same number of pallets to the carrier for transportation. In Australia, there is a pallet rental system. The pallet rental system not only pays rent, but also involves documentation and storage, and handling costs for pallets.

 

Generally speaking, pallets with 1 meter * 1.2 meters (40″*48″) and imported fork tines on all sides should be used in international trade. It is very necessary for the pallet to have four-sided imports, such as loading and unloading goods from both sides of the truck on the dock, it must enter the warehouse at the rear of the truck, or vice versa. In this case, if the pallet has only two sides of the entrance, it will bring difficulties to the loading and unloading work.

 

The specifications of pallets used in different countries are extremely different. The largest pallet used for loading and unloading is 1.2m*2.4m (48″*96″),

 

American warehouse standard pallet size 1m*1.2m (40″*48″);

U.S. rail pallet size 1.143m*1.372m (45″*54″);

Euro pallet size 0.8m*1.2m (32″*48″);

UK standard pallet size 1m*1.5m (40″*60″);

South African pallet size 1.15m*1.6m (46″*64″);

Brazil pallet size 1.3m*1.3m (52″*52″);

Australia pallet size 1.15m*1.15m (46″*46″)

 

 

What is the North America Standard Pallet size and Dimensions?

 

Standard pallet Dimensions, inches (W x L) Standard pallet Dimensions, mm(W x L) Industries Using
48 × 40 1219 × 1016 Grocery as well as many other uses
42 × 42 1067 × 1067 Telecommunications and Paint
48 × 48 1219 × 1219 Drums
40″× 48 1016 × 1219 Military and Cement
48 × 42 1219 × 1067 Chemicals and Beverage
40 × 40 1016 × 1016 Dairy
48 × 45 1219 × 1143 Automotive
44 × 44 1118 × 1118 Drums and Chemicals
36 × 36 914 × 914 Beverage
48 × 36 1219 × 914 Beverage, Shingles, and Packaged Paper
35 × 45.5 889 × 1156 Military 1/2 ISO Container
48 × 20 1219 × 508 Retail

 

 

What is the Australian Standard Pallet size and Dimensions?

 

Standard pallet Dimensions, inches (W × L) Standard pallet Dimensions, mm (W x L) Region Most Used
45.90 × 45.90 1165 x 1165 Australia, New Zealand

 

What is the EU Standard Pallet size and Dimensions?

 

Standard pallet Dimensions, inches (W x L) Standard pallet Dimensions, mm(W x L) EURO Pallet type
31.50 × 47.24 800 × 1,200 EUR, EUR 1
47.24 × 39.37 1,200 × 1,000 EUR 2
39.37 × 47.24 1,000 × 1,200 EUR 3
31.50 × 23.62 800 × 600 EUR 6

 

What is the ISO Pallets size and Dimensions?

 

The standard sizes of double-bottom pallets and other larger pallets recommended by the International Organization for Standardization for direct cargo transportation are as follows:

Standard pallet Dimensions, inches (W × L) Standard pallet dimensions, mm (W x L) Region Most Used
48.00 × 40.00 1219 x 1016 North America
39.37 × 47.24 1000 x 1200 Europe, Asia
44.88 × 44.88 1140 x 1140 Australia
42.00 × 42.00 1067 x 1067 North America, Europe, Asia
43.30 × 43.30 1100 x 1100 Asia
31.50 × 47.24 800 x 600 Europe (fits many doorways)

 

Another Table with global standard pallet sizes and Dimensions, Units of measurement: meters and inches

 

Item name Standard pallet size,L x W x H in mm Standard pallet size,L x W x H in inches Major Countries Available
Timber Block Pallet North American Standard (48 x 40 inches) 1219 x 1016 x 141 48 x 40 x 5.55 USA, Italy, New Zealand
Wooden Pallet 1200 x 1000 x 162 47.24 x 39.37 x 6.38 Most European countries, Latin America, the United Kingdom, India, New Zealand
Wooden & Metal Pallet 800 x 600 x 163 31.50 x 23.62 x 6.42 Most European countries, United Kingdom, South Africa
Wooden Pallet 800 x 600 x 166 31.50 x 23.62 x 6.53 France
Wooden Pallet – 3 Runner 1200 x 1200 x 154 47.24 x 47.24 x 6.06 India, China
Wooden Pallet – New Zealand standard 1200 x 1000 x 140 47.24 x 39.37 x 5.51 New Zealand
Perimeter Wooden Pallet 1200 x 1000 x 154 47.24 x 39.37 x 6.06 India, China
Timber Half Pallet 1220 x 508 x 128 47.24 x 20 x 5.04 Canada
Bearer Pallet 1200 x 1200 x 150 47.24 x 47.24 x 5.90 Namibia, South Africa
Bearer Pallet 1500 x 1200 x 176 59 x 47.24 x 6.13 Namibia, South Africa
Wooden Pallet 1200 x 800 x 144 47.24 x 31.50 x 5.67 Most European countries, UK, South Africa, India
Wooden Pallet – Australian Standard 1165 x 1165 x 150 45.87 x 45.87 x 5.90 Australia, New Zealand
Pallet Mercosur 1200 x 1000 x 145 47.24 x 39.37 x 5.71 USA, Argentina
Wooden Pallet 1000 x 600 x 162 39.37 x 23.62 x 6.38 France
Plastic Dolly 600 x 400 x 173 23.62 x 15.75 x 6.81 Austria, Switzerland
Plastic Pallet – New Zealand standard 1219 x 1016 x 144 48 x 40 x 5.67 New Zealand
Plastic Display Pallet 600 x 400 x 145 23.62 x 15.75 x 5.71 Most European countries
Plastic Display Pallet 1200 x 800 x 160 47.24 x 31.50 x 6.30 Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom
Blue Shield Plastic Pallet 1200 x 1000 x 150 47.24 x 39.37 x 5.90 China, Thailand, South Africa
Plastic Pallet – 3 Runner 1200 x 1000 x 150 47.24 x 39.37 x 5.90 China
Plastic Pallet 1165 x 1165 x 150 45.87 x 45.87 x 5.90 Australia
Automotive Pallet – US Standard 1166 x 1242 x 152 45.87 x 48.90 x 5.98 USA, Canada, Mexico
Automotive Half Pallet 100 x 600 x 144 3.93 x 23.62 x 5.67 Most European countries, Brazil, Argentina
Automotive Pallet 1200 x 1000 x 144 47.24 x 39.37 x 5.67 Most European countries, Brazil, Argentina

 

 

When choosing a standard pallet size and  Dimensions, you need to consider the following factors:

 

Pallets have a direct relationship with stored shelves, transported products, containers, transport vehicles, unloading platforms, and handling facilities. Therefore, the size and  Dimensions

of the pallet is the basis for considering the size of other logistics equipment. For example, the most common beam width dimensions of pallet beam racks are 2300mm and 2700mm. The former holds two pallets of 1200mm×1000mm, and the latter holds three pallets of 1200mm×800mm. Here, it is particularly worth mentioning that to establish an effective pallet sharing system, pallets of uniform specifications must be used, and pallet standardization is a prerequisite for consistent pallet operations. The following factors should be considered when choosing the tray size:

 

  1. Consider the specifications and dimensions of transportation vehicles and transportation equipment

The appropriate pallet size should be in line with the size of the transportation tool, which can make full use of the space of the transportation tool, increase the loading rate, and reduce the transportation cost, especially the internal dimensions of the shipping container and the transportation commercial vehicle.

 

  1. To consider the packaging specifications of the pallet loaded goods

Select the appropriate pallet according to the packaging specifications of the pallet-loaded goods, maximize the use of the surface area of ​​the pallet, and control the height of the center of gravity of the loaded goods. A reasonable index for pallet-carrying goods is: reaching 80% of the pallet’s surface area utilization rate, and the height of the center of gravity of the loaded goods should not exceed two-thirds of the pallet width.

3. Consider the versatility of pallet size  Dimensions 

 

The international standard pallet specifications should be used as much as possible to facilitate the exchange and use of pallets.

 

4. Consider the usage area of ​​the pallet size and  Dimensions :

 

The flow direction of the pallet loaded with goods directly affects the choice of the pallet size.

Usually, goods to Europe should choose 1210 pallets  Dimensions:(1200mm×1000mm) or 1208 pallets  Dimensions : (1200mm×800mm);

Choose 1111 pallets   Dimensions:(1100mm×1100mm) for goods going to Japan and South Korea;

Goods going to Oceania should choose 1140mm×1140mm or 1067mm×1067mm pallets;

Goods to the United States should choose 48-inch x 40-inch pallets, and 1210 pallets are commonly used in China to be sent to the United States.

The 1200mm ×1000mm pallet  Dimensions: is the most widely used in the world, and it is also the most widely used in China

What is the standard pallet load?

 

1 Static capacity

The static load refers to the maximum load that the pallet can bear when the pallet is placed on a horizontal and rigid surface, and the goods are evenly spread on the pallet.

 

2 Dynamic capacity

The dynamic load refers to the maximum load weight that the pallet can bear when the pallet is in dynamic operation, and the goods on the pallet are evenly laid out evenly when using forklifts and other handling equipment.

 

3 Racked capacity

Refers to the maximum load that the pallet can bear when the pallet is overhead on a beam rack or other similar material racks, and the goods on the pallet are evenly laid out.

 

Therefore, when choosing the load capacity of the pallet, it is necessary to understand the use function of the pallet. When the pallet is to be stored on the shelf, the shelf load is the most important. At the same time, the load capacity of the pallet has a lot to do with the way the goods are placed on the pallet. As the load area decreases, the actual remaining load of the pallet will also decrease instead of the original rated load.

 

In the concept of load, dynamic load and shelf load may not be clearly distinguished. In the European Pallet Standard (EPAL), the load on the rack and the dynamic load during forklift operation are combined into the same load

 

What is the usage rate of global standard pallets?

 

Australia is 95%, the United States is 55%, Europe is 70%, Japan is 35%, and South Korea is about 27%. In the United States and Japan, pallets are a huge industry. In order to promote logistics standardization and increase the utilization rate of pallets, the government has successively introduced a number of incentive policies and preferential measures. There is still a long way to go to improve the utilization rate of standardized pallets in China.

 

What are the advantages of the Pallet Exchange System?

(1) Conducive to reducing the logistics cost of the whole society

(2) Conducive to improving the quality of logistics services

(3) Conducive to saving social and economic resources and protecting the ecological environment

 

What materials are used to make wooden pallets?

 

The performance and characteristics of wooden pallets come from the wood itself, and the material is the decisive factor in determining the application and price of wooden pallets.

 

① Poplar: It is a broad-leaved tree species with loose and soft material and poor durability. It is used to make pallets with low load-bearing requirements.

②Pine: It is a coniferous tree with many types and wide applicability. The larch/ponderosa pine/white pine/red pine has a coarse texture, hardwood, white color, and beautiful appearance. It is mostly used to make fine packaging, but the price is higher.

 

 

What are the disadvantages of wooden pallets?The main problems are in hygiene/cleanliness and production stability. 

The wood is susceptible to dampness, mildew, and insects, and cannot be cleaned. In addition, the problems of wood chips falling off on the surface and screw corrosion can not be overcome.

 

As wood is a natural material, its quality is affected by various aspects such as regional climate. Even the same batch of raw materials can hardly reach uniform standards in terms of dry humidity and wind cracking.

 

The service life of wooden pallets is short, and the turnover times under normal use are about 200-300 times.

 

For hygienic reasons (mainly the infestation of long beetles), since 1998, the United States and the European Union have successively issued bans on wooden pallets for export to China, and wooden pallets can only be exported after being processed by methods such as fumigation.

 

The time and cost of fumigation are relatively large (usually 48 hours, and the cost is about 20% of the cost), and the agents used for fumigation (such as potassium bromide alcohol, etc.) are harmful agents. In addition, the pallets used for export must be transported or destroyed by the carrier. This greatly affects the application of disposable wooden pallets.

 

The demand for wood by wooden pallets has caused huge consumption and even destruction of forest resources. From the perspective of development trends, its raw material resources will be increasingly depleted.

 

In addition to wooden pallets, what other materials are standard pallets?

 

Honeycomb paper pallets, laminate pallets, high-density composite board pallets, wood chipboard pallets, plastic pallets, plastic wood pallets, etc.

 

The production process of plastic pallets?

 

At present, Chinese pallet companies mainly use injection molding and hollow blow molding to produce plastic pallets.

 

The raw material of the injection molding pallet is generally low-pressure high-density polyethylene (HDPE), which is molded in one shot. The cost of its raw materials is lower than that of blow-molded pallets, and it is currently widely used in China.

Injection molding is suitable for forming pallets with complex shapes and high rigidity requirements, and for forming large batches of pallets. However, the mold cost is high and the investment is large. There is very little flash, and the post-processing workload of the product is very small. The molding cycle is short, generally about 3 minutes per cycle. The product size is accurate and the surface quality is good.

 

The main parameters considered in the manufacturing process of the injection-molded pallets are:

  1. Clamping force;
  2. Injection volume;
  3. Injection pressure;
  4. Plasticizing capacity and plasticizing time;
  5. Cycle period;
  6. Mold: In order to reduce the mold clamping force and improve the product quality, hot runner molds should be used

 

How to purchase plastic pallets?

  1. Choose a single-sided plastic pallet or a double-sided plastic pallet?
  2. The purchase of plastic pallets cannot blindly compare price and product weight!
  3. Try to purchase pallets with a large load capacity.

 

How to use the Standard pallet?

 

The correct use of the pallet should be such that the goods placed on the pallet are packed with the combination code and appropriately strapped and wrapped to facilitate mechanical loading, unloading and transportation, so as to meet the requirements of loading, unloading, transportation, and storage.

 

What is the load quality of a standard pallet?

The weight of each pallet should be less than or equal to 2 tons. In order to ensure safety during transportation, the height of the center of gravity of the loaded goods should not exceed two-thirds of the width of the pallet.

 

How to fix the standard pallet?

The main ways to fix the goods carried by the pallet are strapping, gluing binding, stretch packaging, and they can be used in conjunction with each other.

 

How to stack standard pallets?

According to the type of goods, the quality of the goods on the pallet, and the size of the pallet, a reasonable way of stacking the goods on the pallet is determined. Generally, the utilization rate of the pallet’s load-bearing surface area should not be less than 80%. The stacking of pallet goods has the following requirements:

 

  1. Single-layer or multi-layer staggered stacking of rigid rectangular goods such as wooden, paper, and metal containers, and stretch or shrink film packaging;
  2. Single-layer cargo of paper or fibrous goods is stacked in multiple layers and sealed with straps.
  3. Cylindrical cargo such as sealed metal containers are stacked in single or multiple layers, and the wooden cargo cover is reinforced.
  4. Paper products and textile goods that need to be protected against moisture, water, etc. are stacked in single or multi-layer staggered, stretch or shrink film packaging goods add corner supports, goods cover partitions, and other reinforcement structures;
  5. One-way or multi-layer stacking of fragile goods, adding wooden supporting partition structure
  6. Metal bottle cylindrical containers or single-layer vertical stacking of cargo, adding cargo frame and slat reinforcement structure;
  7. Multi-layer staggered compaction and stacking of bag goods.

 

The use of standard pallets:

 

  1. When hydraulic trucks and forklifts use the pallet, the distance between the fork teeth should be as wide as possible to the outer edge of the fork inlet of the pallet, and the depth of the fork should be greater than 2/3 of the depth of the entire pallet.

 

  1. When hydraulic trucks and forklifts use the pallet, they should maintain a constant speed to advance and retreat and up and down to avoid sudden brakes and sudden rotations that may damage the pallets and cause the goods to collapse.

 

  1. When the pallet is placed on the shelf, the pallet should be placed steadily on the shelf beam, and the length of the pallet should be greater than the outer diameter of the shelf beam by more than 50mm

 

How to protect and strengthen standard pallets?

After the goods carried by the pallet are fixed, those who still cannot meet the requirements for transportation should choose protective reinforcement accessories according to their needs. Reinforced protective accessories are made of paper, wood, plastic, metal, or other materials